The statistics were calculated by examining the devices that accessed the Google Play store over a 14-day period ending Jan. 3.
In addition to Jelly Bean's 10.2 percent, Ice Cream Sandwich stands at 29.1 percent, Honeycomb has 1.5 percent and Gingerbread 47.6 percent.
Earlier versions of Android, including Froyo, Eclair and Donut, still account collectively for 11.6 percent of Android devices.
Growing faster than ICS
The Google OS's expanding hold on the market may explain why Jelly Bean has been adopted more quickly than Ice Cream Sandwich was when it first launched.
Jelly Bean gained 10 percent of the market share in the almost six months since its release in July, while after almost eight months Ice Cream Sandwich was still on just 7.1 percent of devices.
As The Verge pointed out on Friday, Jelly Bean's faster adoption rate may also be related to the relatively minor changes it made to Ice Cream Sandwich, which was a more drastic update over its predecessors.
In comparison with the shift to Ice Cream Sandwich, upgrading to Jelly Bean is relatively painless.
Nevertheless, like Jelly Bean, Ice Cream Sandwich adoption is up significantly overall, with the older Gingerbread finally dropping below 50 percent of the total Android market.
Via The Verge