What is HDMI 2.1? This is a new standard for HDMI. It arrived in full force with many new 2021 TVs when previously only a handful of displays had HDMI 2.1 in 2020.
It’s safe to say that HDMI 2.1 is a game changer. That’s because it allows more information to pass from games consoles, AV receivers and other devices than ever before. This means upping the potential resolution and refresh rate for more detailed pictures and better-looking games.
These consoles need an HMDI 2.1 connection to support frame rates up to 120 frames per second (fps), which is far higher than the usual 60fps and 30fps frame rates seen on current-gen hardware. It makes sense that TV manufacturers are scrambling to make TVs suitable for the future of gaming.
Back when High Definition Multimedia Interface (or HDMI) first arrived on the scene, it similarly shook up the AV industry. Everyone rejoiced at no longer having to use bulky SCART connectors, or those confusing component video cables, ever again. Instead HDMI offered high definition video with a connector that was just a little bigger than a standard USB plug.
Over the years the HDMI standard has been continuously improved, with extra features added as the needs of televisions have changed. HDMI 2.1 is the next step in that process.
The headline feature here is support for 8K content at 60fps, but there are also a number of minor features that add up to a much more capable standard such as support for Variable Refresh Rate (VRR), Dynamic HDR, and Quick Media Switching, which should make it faster than ever to change between the devices attached to your television.
Here's a rundown of everything that has arrived with the new standard.
- What is VRR? Variable refresh rate explained
HDMI 2.1 resolution and refresh rates
The new HDMI 2.1 cables allow faster refresh rates, including 8K resolution video at 60 frames per second and 4K at 120 frames per second – and it's that second feature that's a real selling point for gamers and home cinema geeks.
"We've increased resolutions and frame rates significantly," Jeff Park, Director of Marketing at HDMI Licensing, told TechRadar, adding that "NHK [Japan's national public broadcaster] is going to push 8K120 as an actual broadcast stream, and many consumer electronics manufacturers want to hit that target, so we're laying the pipe to give the industry flexibility. It's practical stuff."
Although it's about keeping HDMI at the bleeding edge, HDMI 2.1 can actually go ever further, supporting resolutions as high as 10K at 120Hz – though that kind of capability is a while away from being supported on commercial sets.
HDMI 2.1: a saviour for gaming?
HDMI 2.1 might make the biggest impact on the world of gaming. Especially if you have a next-gen games console, like the PS5 or Xbox Series X, which both need a TV that supports HDMI 2.1.
Why's that? HDMI 2.1 covers a number of technologies, including capability for 4K gaming at 120Hz, or 8K gaming at 60Hz – both of which are visually impressive if you have the hardware and cables to support them.
8K gaming is a while off still, but HDMI 2.1 means you soon won't have to choose between 4K resolution and high refresh rates, being able to experience both together.
HDMI 2.1 also enabled VRR (variable refresh rate), which helps to keep games looking smooth by switching up the refresh rate on the fly to best suit how much is happening onscreen. That means less image lag, stutter and frame tearing similar to the effect achieved by FreeSync and G-Sync.
This is great news for gamers, because HDMI 2.1 enables a 3D graphics processor to render and display images in real time, which will result in more fluid gameplay and greater detail.
HDMI 2.1: what is eARC?
It's not all about TVs, either; soundbars, AV amplifiers and other audio equipment also benefit from HDMI 2.1 – though it will mean upgrading all of your equipment.
For the last few generations, HDMI cables have had an Audio Return Channel (ARC), which means audio can be sent both ways between a TV and audio gear. This essentially enables a display to send its own audio – perhaps from a built-in Netflix app – to a soundbar or surround sound system, bypassing its own speakers.
"eARC ups the bandwidth significantly,” says Park. “Previously you were limited to two-channel PCM or legacy Dolby Digital or DTS audio, but with eARC that reverse channel can now support much higher bandwidth audio including Dolby True HD, DTS HD, Dolby Atmos, DTS:X and other object-based audio at much higher bandwidths."
- HDMI Arc vs eARC: what is the new enhanced audio return channel?
HDMI 2.1: what is a 48G cable?
This is about defining a new specification of a HDMI cable's speed, with so-called 48G cables (for now just a working title) offering 48Gbps bandwidth for sending uncompressed 8K video, with HDR, over a HDMI 2.1 cable.
So why do we need a 48G-rated cable? "Because we're carrying so much data now – we've gone from 18Gbps in HDMI 2.0 to 48Gbps in HDMI 2.1," says Park. "Today we have 'standard speed' and 'high speed' HDMI cables, and 48G will be related to that."
Ditto the compliance tests that each HDMI 2.1 cable will have to pass in order to be labelled as such. Backwards-compatible with earlier versions of the HDMI specification, and able to be used with existing HDMI devices.
HDMI 2.0 cables are all really the same, despite what some manufacturers will try to tell you with their branding – but an HDMI 2.1 cable with 48Gbps will be necessary to experience the technology's capabilities, and you'll need a compatible HDMI 2.1 port on any connecting hardware (TVs, soundbars) too.
HDMI 2.1 TV: what screens are out there?
2021 is the year that HDMI 2.1 went mainstream. The standard only received piecemeal support last year on a handful of high-end sets, often with only one HDMI 2.1 port with two or three HDMI 2.0 ports alongside.
That's still the case with some manufacturers (the Sony A90J OLED features a mix of 2.1 and 2.0 inputs), while others are going all-in on HDMI 2.1 ports on their premium TV ranges. Both LG and Samsung are in this latter camp, and you can expect up to four HDMI 2.1 ports on select sets.
Sony was surprisingly slow to incorporate the standard, given it was also behind the PS5 consoles, only bringing HDMI 2.1 to two Sony TVs last year – through an over-the-air firmware update. But now there are some solid options from Sony if you're looking for HDMI 2.1 ports, like the Sony X90J, a native 120Hz TV with two full-spec HDMI 2.1 ports for the Xbox Series X and PS5.
LG was a big early adopter, with the LG CX OLED featuring four HDMI 2.1 ports – though at 10-bit 4K/120Hz passthrough rather than the full 12-bit. This shouldn't really affect your picture onscreen, given that the CX only has a 10-bit panel anyway.
Although the best TV that's set to come out of 2021 from LG – and one of the best overall, too – is the LG C1 OLED TV, with four HDMI 2.1 ports that support 4K at 144Hz, plus you’ve got three USBs, RF tuner, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and optical digital audio output. Last but not least, one of the HDMI ports supports eARC/ARC, which is great for folks with an AVR or soundbar who don’t like to have more than one remote in use. There are other LG TVs that support the full 12-bit HDMI too, such as the ZX OLED.
- Best 120Hz 4K TVs for next-gen gaming
Jamie Carter originally contributed to this article.