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How to protect yourself online

Anticipate and respond to threats before they happen

security
(Image: © Future)

Stay safe

security

(Image credit: Future)

2017 was the year of ransomware according to the Kapersky Security Bulletin (opens in new tab), with 26.2% of those targeted being business users, and one in six of businesses that paid the ransom not recovering their data. There were multiple ransomware outbreaks, including WannaCry (opens in new tab), ExPetr and Bad Rabbit (opens in new tab).

In other cyber threat news the KRACK vulnerability was discovered, leaving wireless network encryption exposed, and users waiting for patches. Finally, early this year, our CPUs were discovered to have security holes via the Spectre and Meltdown (opens in new tab) vulnerabilities.

As well as reviewing last year's cyber attacks, and discussing the lessons that can be learned, the Kaspersky Security Bulletin also predicts some likely threats for the coming year. 

The bottom line is that it's a cybersecurity jungle out there, but by following a few simple tips you can maximize your business's chances of making it unscathed.

1. Update Update Update

Update

(Image credit: Future)

For 2017, the Sans Institute (opens in new tab) documented a number of online security threats, including phishing, ransomware, and DDoS attacks. The most common mechanism of entry of the malware was through users clicking on a link or opening an email attachment.

Updates are issued to try and minimize the vulnerability of systems, but many users don’t bother to install the latest version of their operating system and so aren't getting the benefits of the latest security updates. Turn on Automatic Updates in Windows (opens in new tab) and on your Mac (opens in new tab) to stay safe.

2. Maintain your Airgap

Wi-fi

(Image credit: Future)

Sophisticated malware like that used in the ProjectSauron (opens in new tab) cyber-espionage platform will often make use of network-driven backdoors. These can sit benignly in a computer system until activated remotely. 

In December 2015, tech giant Juniper Networks made the shocking announcement (opens in new tab) that it had found unauthorized code embedded into its firewalls which could potentially allow attackers to take control of their systems.

Rather than scan your OS’s code line by line, employ an airgap. Any truly sensitive data will then be stored on a device that is not connected to the internet, protecting it from network backdoors.

However, more recently, techniques including Magneto and Odini (opens in new tab) have been able to extract data from an air-gapped computer via the magnetic field frequencies of the machine, with the appropriate malware installed.

3. Backup

Floppy disk

(Image credit: Future)

According to Kaspersky, 2017 was the year of ransomware (opens in new tab), with three ransomware epidemics garnering attention: WannaCry, Bad Rabbit and ExPetr. 

While traditionally there has been a certain honor among thieves when it came to unlocking machines, at least in some cases victims' data was not decrypted even following the payment of the ransom. In fact, ExPetr does not even have any integrated mechanism (opens in new tab) to identify victims, so there's no way for them to be provided with a decryption key.

Use the backup and restore features available in both Windows and OS X to avoid being extorted. When backing up be sure to use a separate, external drive to store your files, and keep it off-site when it's not in use.

Our TechRadar guides show you how to back up your device:

4. Lock down your IoT devices

Security

(Image credit: Future)

In October 2016, more than 80 major websites were forced offline in a DOS (Denial of Service Attack) using hundreds of enslaved 'internet of things' (IoT) devices. A Chinese Electronic component manufacturer later sheepishly admitted (opens in new tab) that its devices, from CCTV Cameras to digital recorders, had been hijacked to form a huge slave network.

More recently, in December 2017, 360 Netlab described a new family of malware (opens in new tab), which has been named Satori, and covers three variants. This Satori malware has been used to exploit a zero-day vulnerability on home routers.

Contact the manufacturer of your devices for help with changing the default password. Make sure to use a secure wireless network for your IoT appliances, ideally one secured with WPA2-PSK (AES), and keep your router’s firmware updated, and only with firmware directly obtained from the manufacturer.  

5. Stoke your firewall

Security

(Image credit: Future)

In January of this year a vulnerability was discovered in Cisco's Adaptive Security Appliance (opens in new tab) (ASA), one of the most widely deployed SSL VPNs on the market. It was discovered that hackers could penetrate the Secure Socket Layer (SSL), and remotely reconfigure the box to run code, which Cisco has designated a critical issue. Firewall manufacturers will most likely continue to discover backdoors in their products.

Consider installing the free and open source firewall distribution IPFire (opens in new tab) onto a dedicated computer such as an inexpensive Raspberry Pi (opens in new tab) to be certain there are no hidden surprises. IPFire is designed specifically for people with little networking experience, and allows you to separate your home network and internet traffic into separate 'safe zones'. 

6. Advanced Intrusion Detection

security

(Image credit: Future)

Antivirus databases require continuous updates to remain current. First the viruses need to be identified, then inserted into the database, and the user needs to keep their software up to date. It becomes a continuous game of leapfrog, with users attempting to keep up with the latest malware, but it too often becomes a hopeless effort as databases in some examples go out of date faster than the process can be updated. 

One example of this dates back to August 2015, when the hacking group Sofacy launched a cyberattack using its own tool AZZY (opens in new tab). Kaspersky countered by updating its virus recognition database. Sofacy responded to this by releasing a modified version of AZZY within 90 minutes which wasn't recognized by the virus scanner. 

The bottom line is that in 2018, simple antivirus programs relying on signature based-verification (opens in new tab) won't be able to detect malware fast enough. 

Choose security software which also employs anomaly-based detection, which will block any programs that behave unusually. ClamAV (opens in new tab), for instance, is an excellent free, cross-platform antivirus program which uses both types of detection. 

7. Turn off tracking

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Kaspersky predicts that in 2018 advertisers and malicious actors will step up their efforts to undermine your anonymity through the use of (opens in new tab)tracking cookies (opens in new tab).

This has worrying implications for your privacy if, for example, you visit a life insurance website for a quote and they're able to detect that you recently bought a book about heart disease on Amazon.  

Microsoft Edge (opens in new tab), Firefox (opens in new tab) and Chrome (opens in new tab) users can adjust their preferences to state that they would prefer not to be tracked. Consider also installing a browser extension such as Ghostery (opens in new tab) to block all trackers.

8. Be more Antisocial

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Kaspersky has predicted that in 2018, in addition to advertising networks, vigilante hackers are increasingly likely to target social networks – the best known example has been the use of bots (opens in new tab) to influence politics and elections. 

While you can't control the servers used by your favorite social networking websites, consider carefully what you post online, and make sure to familiarize yourself with the privacy settings of the social networks you use. 

Facebook users can benefit from TechRadar’s recently updated article on Advanced Facebook privacy and security tips (opens in new tab)

9. Use 2FA

security

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Recent reports have shown that even with 2FA, accounts can be hacked. For example, T-Mobile accounts in the US were recently compromised due to inadequate security precautions that relied on text messaging, which were compromised via the cloning of SIM cards. The hackers' ultimate goal was to steal cryptocurrency (opens in new tab).

While it would be wonderful if everyone used a different, complex password for each site, it's not very practical. Major websites like Facebook (opens in new tab), LinkedIn (opens in new tab) and Twitter (opens in new tab) do however offer two-step verification, which requires you to input a code sent to your phone in addition to entering your password when logging in from a new location.

Although text messages are one option, the state of the art in terms of 2FA is an authenticator app, which is considered more secure as it's not vulnerable to a SIM card cloning. These apps are available from the likes of Microsoft (opens in new tab) and Google (opens in new tab).

  • Security Week (opens in new tab) by TechRadar Pro is brought to you in association with CyberGhost.

Jonas P. DeMuro is a freelance reviewer covering wireless networking hardware.