Online privacy is something we should all be paying attention to – in particular, what information we're revealing about ourselves without knowing it.
Assuming you're not doing anything you shouldn't be, there's nothing inherently wrong with guarding your personal details and browsing habits. Privacy isn't just an issue for celebrities.
In fact, it's far more likely that your privacy is compromised by advertising agencies than anyone else. From a simple Google search, to pretty much any ad-funded website, your browsing behaviour can be tracked to establish which adverts you're most likely to click on.
Fortunately, there are plenty of ways to prevent this monitoring. We'll show you some of the best options, from simple tricks to more hardcore solutions that can shield you from almost any surveillance.
Online privacy tends to make headlines with stories of governments spying on citizens. But while state surveillance is undeniable, the first invasion of your privacy is more likely to come via a Google search. Although apparently anonymous, Google has a habit of tracking your searches in order to bombard you with personalised adverts.
By contrast, a search engine such as DuckDuckGo generates unbiased search results without the added user profiling or tracking.
Switching to a less commercially driven search engine will certainly help you on the road to anonymity, but visit a few websites and inevitably you'll receive cookies.
These tiny text files are usually perfectly legitimate ways for websites to record things, such as frequently viewed items, so they'll appear on your next visit. But, cookies can easily turn on you…
Tracking cookies are more invasive and compile records of browsing habits and personal details in order for the cookie host to target you with specific adverts.
Since 2011, EU and US law has increased cookie awareness by requiring websites to display homepage notification banners that you can't miss, but it's really just a token nod at respecting privacy.
A more promising attempt at keeping your browsing less trackable is the Do Not Track HTTP header, now integrated into all common web browsers. When activated, websites are requested not to use tracking cookies.
However, the key word there is "requested", as while Do Not Track may be great in theory, the feature can't actually prevent websites and advertisers from tracking you.
There's no law to say they can't completely ignore a DNT request.
Clear the slate
So, the bottom line is, it's up to you to stay anonymous. Simply clearing your browser cache and cookies through your browser's settings is a good start.
Alternatively, you can use clean-up software such as CCleaner to delete cookies, temporary internet fi les and various other web leftovers from multiple browsers in one go.
Once you've got a clean slate, keep it that way by using private browsing modes to keep your interests under wraps. This could be Microsoft's InPrivate feature, Firefox's Private Browsing mode or Incognito in Chrome.
They all do a pretty good job of preventing nosey tracking cookies from setting up camp on your computer. But even without going into full-on secret browsing mode, the big browsers also allow you to block third-party cookies, and while this doesn't create an impenetrable barrier, it's more eff ective than a Do Not Track request.
Another easy way to regain control of your internet anonymity is by exploiting browser extensions to close privacy loopholes. Active web content such as Java, Flash and Silverlight can be used to obtain system information without your knowledge and piece together various browsing habits.
Automated scripts can also be potential security risks, so controlling exactly what web content can and can't run is a good thing.
Browser extensions such as NoScript for Firefox and ScriptSafe for Chrome allow you to do exactly that, blocking all active web content and asking for your approval before letting it run. At first these extensions can be annoying, but the more you use them, the smarter and less intrusive they get.
Spot the spies
The problem is, even when web tracking is legitimate, the fact it happens without your knowledge provokes lack of trust.
Wouldn't it be great if you could see exactly who's trying to sneak information about you so you could stop them in their tracks? Well, that's exactly what extensions such as Ghostery and Disconnect do. Both are available for IE, Firefox and Chrome.
With a simple browser button, you can see a list of active advertising, analytics and social media tracking organisations on a current webpage. You're even able to control which ones can collect information about your browsing session. Both extensions are easy to use and far less troublesome than script-blockers.
Plus, unlike private browsing modes, which simply stop tracking organisations from leaving cookies, these extensions can actually prevent them from monitoring you. Far more effective. However, just because your browser is locked down, this doesn't necessarily mean your system is secure.
Any malware already present on your PC may still be snooping on you, and carelessly downloading the wrong zip, executable or even PDF file can transmit your personal details to unintended recipients.
Email attachments aren't the only way in which your privacy can be compromised. Your actual written email correspondence is also far from anonymous.
Way back when Google launched Gmail with a 1GB storage limit, it wasn't keen to market how this capacity was funded. Google did, and still does, scan email content in order to target you with personalised adverts, and Yahoo is up to the same tricks.
Thankfully, there's no shortage of ways to keep your email correspondence safe and secure. If you're serious about email anonymity, providers such as Hushmail offer built-in PGP email encryption and no advertising.
Email another Hushmail user and your message is automatically encrypted when sent and decrypted when read.
Email a non-Hushmail recipient and you can still use encryption, but require them to answer a secret question before the message can be read. Clever stuff , but you'll need to part with $35 a year for it, or there's a free version if you can stick to a 25MB storage limit and log in frequently.