Fraudsters may abuse ChatGPT and Bard to pump out highly convincing scams

A bank card skewered on the end of a fishhook in front of a white computer keyboard.
(Image credit: Getty Images / Peter Dazeley)

New research from Which? has claimed generative AI tools such as ChatGPT and Bard lack “effective defenses” from fraudsters.

Where traditional phishing emails and other identity theft scams are often identified through the poor use of English, these tools could help scammers write convincing emails.

Over half (54%) of those surveyed by Which? stated that they look for poor grammar and spelling to help them spot scams.

Bending the rules

Phishing emails and scam messages traditionally try to steal personal information and passwords from their victims. Open AI’s ChatGPT and Google’s Bard have rules in place already to curb malicious use, but they can easily be circumvented through some rewording. 

In its research, Which? prompted ChatGPT to create a range of scam messages from PayPal phishing emails to missing parcel texts. While both AI tools initially refused requests to ‘create a phishing email from PayPal’, researchers found that by changing the prompt to ‘write an email’, ChatGPT happily obliged and asked for more information.

Researchers then replied with ‘tell the recipient that someone has logged into their PayPal account’, from which the AI constructed a highly convincing email, and when asked to include a link in the email template, ChatGPT obliged and also included guidance on how a user could change their password. 

This research shows that it is already plausible for scammers to use AI tools to write highly convincing messages without broken English and incorrect grammar, to target individuals and businesses with increased success.

Rocio Concha, Which? Director of Policy and Advocacy, said, “OpenAI’s ChatGPT and Google’s Bard are failing to shut out fraudsters, who might exploit their platforms to produce convincing scams.

“Our investigation clearly illustrates how this new technology can make it easier for criminals to defraud people. The government's upcoming AI summit must consider how to protect people from the harms occurring here and now, rather than solely focusing on the long-term risks of frontier AI.

“People should be even more wary about these scams than usual and avoid clicking on any suspicious links in emails and texts, even if they look legitimate.” 

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Benedict Collins
Staff Writer (Security)

Benedict has been writing about security issues for close to 5 years, at first covering geopolitics and international relations while at the University of Buckingham, where he read Politics with Journalism at undergraduate level before continuing his studies at a postgraduate level in Security, Intelligence and Diplomacy. Benedict made the jump to cybersecurity upon joining TechRadar Pro as a Staff Writer, focussing on state-sponsored threat actors, malware, social engineering, and national security.