Once something brought to life in science fiction films, biometric fingerprint readers, facial recognition systems, retinal scanners and more have, in recent years, proven effective in authenticating consumer devices and have well and truly hit the mainstream.
This has prompted many enterprise organisations to explore biometric authentication as a way to protect sensitive data and to ensure that the right person has access to the right device at the right time.
However, whilst some information security experts believe biometric technology is the future of digital security, others voice growing concerns around privacy. But, before we weigh up the risks and rewards, here’s a quick overview.
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Understanding biometric authentication
To work for identification and access control purposes, biometric markers must be completely unique to an individual, recordable and permanent. Examples of biometric data include a person’s unique facial structure, the minute ridges of a fingerprint, the one-of-a-kind patterned iris encircling a pupil in the eye, the unique sound waves of a person’s voice (or “voiceprint”), the geometry of a hand or the way a person interacts with a computer system (a typing cadence or mouse usage for example). These ‘unique human identities’ are collected, stored and matched in a database, providing a secure way for users to log into a host of devices or systems without having to use (and remember) multiple passwords.
And this isn’t just future-gazing technology. A recent survey conducted by CyberArk among UK office workers revealed that many organisations are beginning to integrate cutting-edge new security technologies into their strategies, with nearly one in five (19%) reporting that their IT security team is experimenting with biometric security techniques, including fingerprint and retinal scans and embedded microchips.
The cybersecurity conundrum
This technology is all very well and good, but businesses cannot afford to overlook the plethora of security and privacy concerns that come with implementing biometric authentication.
Firstly, there is a significant difference between a hacker getting their hands on a fingerprint rather than a password - you cannot change your DNA after all! This leaves your devices vulnerable and exposed. Furthermore, the permanence of biometric authentication could easily lead some individuals and organisations to become overly confident in the technology and focus less on robust cybersecurity best practices such as multi-factor authentication (MFA), needed to thoroughly secure employee devices.
Savvy hackers will and are already trying to exploit biometric technology for digital and physical authentication. According to reports from Motherboard, some hackers have allegedly cracked hacking vein authentication technology by making fake hands out of wax. Whilst this is an extreme and unusual example, this just proves the lengths that hackers are willing to go and businesses have to stay one step ahead of the curve to combat all kinds of threats.
How can these hacks take shape?
Here are just a few ways attackers are targeting unique human identities to gather massive amounts of biometric data for future modelling purposes and nefarious use:
Genetic consumer services
If you’ve ever taken an at-home DNA test, your unique genetic information is now in the hands of an organisation you probably have limited knowledge of. Last June, genealogy testing service MyHeritage revealed that 92 million accounts were found on a private server. While personal DNA was not compromised in this instance, it demonstrates the potential for far-reaching damage in the case of a successful breach.
Embedded human microchips
According to the biohacking company Dangerous Things, between 50,000 and 100,000 people today sport an embedded microchip, which they use to do things like unlock their office door, get into the gym, buy lunch and simplify travel. Yet, a number of security researchers have demonstrated ways to successfully hack into these chip implants – from infecting a chip with a virus through a SQL injection attack to conduct a URL attack on a browser vulnerability on an NFC chip.
Biometric stores within organisations
As adoption of biometric authentication grows, huge amounts of highly sensitive data are being collected, stored on-premises and in the cloud, processed and accessed with minimal protection or oversight. Cyber attackers are increasingly targeting data stores within organisations, understanding that many have not implemented the appropriate technical and organisational measures needed to keep this sensitive data secure.
Whilst biometric technology is no longer the stuff of science fiction, we do believe it has a long way to go to be implemented at scale across large businesses. We have to stay one step ahead of the hackers and anticipate their ability to hack into biometric technology at any time. Doing this will require robust cyber security measures such as MFA. There is more at stake here than just financial and reputational damages and losses to businesses – this is about protecting our unique human identities. It’s time to wise up to the risks that biometric technologies can pose and to take the necessary steps to combat them.
David Higgins , EMEA technical director at CyberArk
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